Pauline Louisa Mars Baxter

Aug 1857 – Dec 14 1924

Wife of James Baxter Principal of the Colored School. Born to a prominent family, graduated the School of Design of the Cooper Institute and was frequently employed on designs for illustrated papers. The New York Globe says she was the “first colored lady” to “receive a diploma from that institution”. She graduated in 1871. In 1875, National Republican wrote, “Miss Pauline Mars is very highly esteemed by the elite of this country as a refined and accomplished lady”.

Founding member of the Phillis Wheatley Literary Society, served in several officer roles.

Appointed in 1912 to a commission to arrange the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation for NJ as an Assistant Organizer paid $75/month, after taking a competetive Civil Service exam. She spoke this same year at a dinner of the New Jersey Democratic League.

In 1917 when the Negro Welfare League (later Urban League) was founded in Newark she was on the Board of Directors.

In 1918 appointed Juvenile Delinquent Inspector in the Negro Welfare Bureau of the Department of Labor. Later that year she was said to be investigating the housing conditions in Newark. She was also on the executive board of the New Jersey Prison Reform Association.

Newark News Dec 15, 1924


“Newark, NJ” New York Age Jan 16, 1913

“Newark, NJ” New York Age May 29, 1913

“New Jersey Has a Negro Welfare Bureau” New York Age Mar 9, 1918

“New Jersey Commission is Now Seeking Funds” New York Age Jul 10, 1918

“Complimentary Dinner Tendered Tom Swain” New York Age Nov 7, 1912

“Reports of Negro Welfare League” Central Jersey Home News Apr 30, 1918

Urban League Minutes, May 7, 1917, Newark Library

Phillis Wheatley Literary Club, Newark Associations Collection, Newark Library

“Negros to Help Fallen Brothers” Trenton Times Jul 15, 1918

“Show Increase In Negroes Ability” Trenton Times Dec 19, 1912

New Jersey, Episcopal Diocese of Newark Church Records, 1809-1816, 1825-1970,

“To Philadelphia New York and Back” People’s Advocate Jul 7, 1883

“Local Gossip” New York Globe Jul 28, 1883

“Married for Love” National Republican Jul 21, 1875